domingo, 27 de junho de 2010
quinta-feira, 24 de junho de 2010
quarta-feira, 23 de junho de 2010
terça-feira, 22 de junho de 2010
domingo, 20 de junho de 2010
Brazil keeps up its tradition of nicknamed stars; cheering for 'Duck,' 'Goose' and 'Dopey'
By John Lyons – The Wall Street Journal (June-2010)
SÃO PAULO, Brazil—Júnior Silva is outraged about the World Cup team his nation is fielding.
"It's madness that Dopey left Duck and Goose off the team," Mr. Silva, a shop worker in downtown São Paulo, says in Portuguese.
Brazil may take soccer more seriously than any other nation. Some banks will close and even many nursery schools are letting out early in honor of the country's World Cup debut Tuesday against North Korea.
But conversation about the sport can sound like a page from "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs." A controversial figure in Brazil just now, for instance, is Carlos Caetano Bledorn Verri, the national coach whose player selections have sparked reaction even from a member of the nation's highest court.
But most participants in that debate have no idea who Carlos Caetano Bledorn Verri is. They know Mr. Bledorn Verri as "Dunga," which is the Brazilian name given to the dwarf "Dopey" of Snow White fame. As a child, it turns out, Mr. Bledorn Verri was short, earning him a nickname that he never outgrew.
Why would he want to? By serving as captain of the nation's World Cup-winning 1994 team, he turned Dunga into a nationally revered nickname.
This year, Brazil's team is the highest-ranked squad in the World Cup, and its star—Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite—is arguably the most talented player on the planet. But even in Brazil, where his celebrity is unparalleled, few people know who Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite is. They know him as "Kaká," a nickname that evolved from a younger brother's attempt to pronounce "Ricardo."
As he grew famous, Mr. dos Santos Leite did manage to change the spelling of his nickname, from the previous "Cacá." The word Cacá is an accent away from Brazilian slang for feces.
Even newspapers never mention the real names of these stars. "If you talk to 10 people, you might find one who knows Dunga's real name, but it's probably zero. The same for Kaká," says Reinivaldo Gomes, who runs a magazine stand in São Paulo. Nicknames have a way of sticking in Brazil. The nation's 64-year-old president, Luiz Inácio da Silva, is known far and wide as "Lula," which is Portuguese for squid and a common nickname in Brazil's northeast for Luiz.
Nickname mania is part of a broader cultural penchant for keeping things casual. Brazilians, for instance, prefer first names to last names, which is why the nation's richest man, mining tycoon Eike Batista, is known as Eike. To anyone wanting to show deference, he is Mr. Eike.
But not everyone's first name is as uncommon as Eike. "My sister's name is Camila, and her three best friends are called Camila," says Andres Tavares, an executive who has been known since childhood as "Gordo" (tubby), even though he no longer carries many extra pounds.
Although nicknames pervade Brazilian society, the best-known world-wide have been soccer players, and that's no surprise: Brazil has won more World-Cup championships than any other country. Ever heard of Edson Arantes do Nascimento—the man widely regarded as the greatest soccer player of all time? How about his more-famous nickname—Pelé? A member of three of Brazil's five World Cup-winning squads, he reportedly received the nickname as a child, when he mispronounced the name of a goalkeeper called Bile.
By now, global soccer fans are used to seeing first names or nicknames on the backs of Brazilian soccer jerseys instead of the traditional last names most athletes use. But as with most things in freewheeling Brazil, there are no hard-and-fast rules to name changing.
On this year's squad, for instance, is the veteran midfielder known as Kléberson. He was born José Kléberson Pereira. His second name was so overpowering it became his whole name.
At times, soccer nicknames get upgrades for marketing reasons. A striker on Brazil's team in South Africa, Edinaldo Batista Libânio, is known as "Grafite."
But back in 1999, when he showed up at a small soccer club in São Paulo, he was known as Dina—a nickname his coach thought sounded weak. As Grafite, he rose to the top of the national sport.
Theories abound as to why nicknames have such staying power here. But the custom is fitting for a country whose name itself is a kind of nickname. Centuries ago, the Portuguese were extracting so much Brazil wood that the name soon applied to the entire colony.
At least one Brazilian athlete brought his nickname to the National Basketball Association.
As the youngest child in his family back in São Carlos, Maybyner Rodney Hilário became known as "Nenê"—Portuguese for baby.
In 2003, at the outset of his NBA career, the nearly seven-foot tall, 250-pound center for the Denver Nuggets legally changed his name to Nene. As Brazil prepares for its first game, many here remain mystified by Coach Dunga's decision to leave off the team two young stars named Paulo Henrique Chagas de Lima and Alexandre Rodrigues da Silva.
Of course, nobody knows them by those names. They're known as "Ganso" (Goose) and "Pato" (Duck).
sexta-feira, 18 de junho de 2010
Entre as opções, está Inglês com Filmes II, ministrado por mim, nos dias 28, 29 e 30/07 – quarta, quinta e sexta-feira, das 18h às 21h, no Shopping Center Light (Centro de SP). Serão trabalhados cerca de 10 filmes, com atividades em inglês de compreensão auditiva, vocabulário, gramática e conversação.
Em janeiro, ministrei o mesmo curso, porém com filmes diferentes, portanto, mesmo quem já fez o primeiro módulo pode se inscrever novamente. O valor de R$ 10 por curso é válido para pagamento realizado entre os dias 15 e 26 de junho. Para pagamentos feitos de 27 de junho a 12 de julho, o valor será de R$ 20.
Para inscrever-se em meu curso, acesse http://www.ung.br/cursosdeferias/cursos.php, selecione Educação - Inglês com Filmes II. Corra, as vagas são limitadas!
quarta-feira, 16 de junho de 2010
Ilan Kernerman heads K DICTIONARIES (KD), an international dictionary company based in Tel Aviv. It develops dictionary content and software covering well over 40 languages, and cooperates with publishing houses, technology firms, universities, lexicography associations, language experts and translators all over the world. In Brazil, KD has been cooperating for the last 20 years with Martins Fontes on the Password dictionary.
Through Martins Fontes (and some help from my colleague Cristina Melo, marketing analyst at Companhia de Idiomas) I sent this interview to Ilan who kindly answered me via email. Ilan will be here in São Paulo in July, for the Braz-Tesol Convention.
Tell us something about your background, education and experience:
Ilan - I grew up in Israel and left the country when I was quite young. First I went to Canada, then lived in England, and then in France. I moved from London to Paris in order to study mime with Etienne Decroux, and eventually took other theatrical studies as well. After returning to Israel I worked in the theatre, mainly as an actor, and finally as the director and producer of my adaptation of William Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew.
How did you start working with dictionaries? What was the first one you've editted?
Ilan - W
Ilan - When I decided to leave the theatre, I was fortunate to be able to join my father’s publishing house, which specialized in ELT and became strongly involved in English learners’ dictionaries. I learnt about lexicography, publishing and business administration, and handled the contact with publishing partners in other countries who undertook local language versions of our semi-bilingual English learner’s dictionary (such as Martins Fontes, with the Brazilian Portuguese edition of Password).
I have no formal background in linguistics, am not a lexicographer and do not compile dictionary entries myself, but I did initiate and supervise various dictionary projects. The first ones were to coordinate the first substantial editorial revision of Password dictionary and the development of its first desktop application (both around 1996-1997).
What's the process of writing a dictionary like? How many people are usually involved? What are the steps? What softwares are used?
Ilan - The answers may vary considerably since there are many types of dictionaries and each undergoes a different compilation process, caters for different users, for different media, etc. A new project usually goes through a gradual creative period of planning, including a lot of study and analysis, brainstorming, samples, and trials and errors. Today, rather than “writing a dictionary” what we do is more like “compiling a dictionary database” that consists of various lexicographic data components that can eventually be put together in different ways for each specific dictionary in order to suit different purposes.
You begin by defining the target audience, the goals to attain and the resources that are available – then the dictionary is going to be designed accordingly. Our policy is to prepare an editorial styleguide, which describes the macro-structure of the dictionary and outlines the micro-structure of the entries, providing the wide overview of the project and going into detail on each and every aspect of the entry. The styleguide includes samples of the entries, and it also explains to the lexicographer how to use the editing software accordingly. In addition, the chief editor prepares a list of the headwords that the dictionary entries are going to consist of.
All of our dictionary compilation is done in XML format, which implies configuring an XML Editor to suit each project. Accordingly, we provide relevant documentation and technical support to the editors to help to install the software and manipulate it.
We work on many dictionary projects, involving lexicographers and translators in many parts of the world. The number of persons can vary, from very few to several dozens, depending on the project.
When is it better for students to use a bilingual or a monolingual dictionary? Why?
Ilan - As a generalization I would say a monolingual dictionary is best suitable for your native language, whereas for help with studying a foreign language you are better off using a learner’s dictionary of that language that takes your own mother tongue and cultural charge into account – i.e. a bilingual learner’s dictionary.
The reason is the need to accommodate to the vital role of the native language (and culture) as an integral part of the foreign language learning process. Thus, the more considerate you are of this, the better tuned your dictionary will be. A monolingual dictionary for learning a foreign language, no matter how fine and smart it may be, is by default incapable of attending to the subtleties and impacts of your “native language interference” and cultural background, but is obliged by its nature to be a one-size-fits-all product that aims to satisfy much wider user groups than just your own particular needs.
How to choose the best dictionary for your needs?
Ilan - You should be clear about what these needs are (e.g. production? reception? academic purposes?), what your learning level is (beginner, inermediate, advanced, etc), if are you interested in learning the language in general, in obtaining translations, in encyclopaedic information, in a specific topic (e.g. computers, economics, law, medicine), and how can each of the dictionaries that are available best satisfy these needs.
How to get the best out of dictionaries so that you improve even more your English (or any other language)?
Ilan - Good dictionaries usually contain rich and complex information, some of which may be coded or is not very intuitive. It is advisable to invest some time in mastering the dictionary’s user guide and in learning about all the types of information the dictionary includes and how they are displayed. It is necessary to read the full entry, not suffice with the first sense – which might not be the one you need. Cross-referencing entries can be useful for expanding your horizons about the initial word or phrase you looked up. Besides, the media the dictionary is in might offer more insight, such as vocal pronunciation or hyperlinking in electronic dictionaries.
Will the Braz-Tesol Convention be your first time in Brazil? What do you know about our country?
Ilan - I was first in Brazil a couple of years ago, and am much looking forward to this next visit. As a child, my first notion of Brazil was connected to its wonderful football, and later on to its ingenious music. These last few years I listen especially to Caetano Veloso, and am even getting to learn some words from his songs (as of from Vinicius de Moraes). I am fascinated by Brazilian pronunciation and the musicality of your language. I am deeply intrigued by the similarities and differences between our countries – such as the mixture of different people, sounds and colors, sun and sea – which are both highly sensual in essence and worlds apart in so many ways. It is exciting to see how Brazil is developing and the shift in its global status. Although I will now spend over two weeks in your country, this is basically a working visit in three main cities (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte), so I hope to eventually be able to return to visit other parts as well.
terça-feira, 15 de junho de 2010
As Brazil starts today in the World Cup, here you are some vocabulary about soccer, from the site English Experts:
What’s the score? – Como está o placar?
Who’s winning? – Quem está ganhando?
Está 4 a 0 para o Cruzeiro. – It’s 4 to 0, Cruzeiro.
Deu zebra, o Atlético ganhou. – It was an upset, Atlético won.
They won by penalties. – Eles ganharam nos pênaltis.
Amistoso – friendly game
Arquibancada – stand
Barreira – wall
Cartão amarelo – yellow card
Centroavante – centre forward, striker
Chute – shot
Contra – against, versus, “v”
Defesa – save
Dois a zero – two nill
Equipe – team
Expulsar – to send off
Geral – terraces
Gol contra – own goal
Goleador – hat-trick
Grande área – penalty area
Intervalo – half time
Lesões – injuries
Linha da grande área – penalty area marking
Locutor – commentator
Marcar o gol – to score
Matar no peito – to chest trap
Morte súbita, gol de ouro – golden goal
Partida, jogo – match, game
Pequena área – box
Ponta-esquerda – left wing
Prorrogação – extra time
Rede – net
Técnico – manager, coach
Trave – post, goalpost
Vencer – to win
Zero a zero – nil nil
segunda-feira, 14 de junho de 2010
Módulo II: Conditionals
Módulo I: Gerunds and Infinitives
Módulo II: Phrasal Verbs
Dias: 19 (módulo I) e 26 (módulo II) de junho de 2010
Horário: das 9h às 11h (com welcome coffee das 8h30 às 9h)
Local: Sede da Companhia de Idiomas - Rua Professor Serafim Orlandi, 188 - São Paulo (SP)
Carga horária total: 4 horas
Material adotado: Apostila Exclusiva Companhia de Idiomas
Investimento por módulo R$ 110,00
Investimento total: R$ 200,00
Pagamento à vista ou parcelado em duas vezes
Telefones: 5549-5349 / 5572-2447
El Día del Español se celebrará este año el 19 de junio. Desde las 11h se podrá disfrutar de una jornada de puertas abiertas repleta de actividades, en todos los centros que el Instituto Cervantes tiene alrededor del mundo. Además este año se ha invitado a los países hispanoamericanos y toda la comunidad hispanohablante a unirse a la celebración.
You go up to her and say, "I am very rich. Marry me!"
That's Direct Marketing
You're at a party with a bunch of friends and see a gorgeous girl.
One of your friends goes up to her and pointing at you says,
"He's very rich. Marry him."
You see a gorgeous girl at a party.
You go up to her and get her telephone number.
The next day you call and say, "Hi, I'm very rich. Marry me."
You're at a party and see a gorgeous girl.
You get up and straighten your tie; you walk up to her and pour her a drink.
You open the door for her, pick up her bag after she drops it, offer her a ride, and then say, "By the way, I'm very rich "Will you marry me?"
That's Public Relations.
You're at a party and see a gorgeous girl.
She walks up to you and says, "You are very rich...?
That's Brand Recognition.
You see a gorgeous girl at a party.
You go up to her and say, "I'm rich.
Marry me" She gives you a nice hard slap on your face.
That's Customer Feedback
quinta-feira, 10 de junho de 2010
O IX Encontro de Linguística de Corpus acontecerá na Faculdade de Letras da PUCRS, Porto Alegre, RS, de 8 a 9 de outubro de 2010. Ele será antecedido pela IV Escola Brasileira de Linguística Computacional, que terá lugar de 6 a 7 de outubro, no mesmo local.
Divide students in groups and ask them to discuss these questions:
1) What does feedback mean?
2) How often do you receive feedback in your job?
3) Do you think that feedback is important? Why?
4) Have you received feedback in your English course this semester? When?
5) Can you identify feedback moments during the class?
After the discussion, the students share their opinions with the whole class, and the teacher can indicate some moments in the class when feedback occurs, even if it's not a "feedback session", such as:
- when the teacher calls the students in the end of the class to say that they need to attend "Plantão".
- when the teacher asks why they were absent and show them the activities the group had.
- when the teacher writes the sentences the students said on the board and they have to correct.
- when the teacher motivates the students not to give up the course.
- when the teacher suggests extra activities.
- when the teacher asks the students to stop speaking Portuguese.
terça-feira, 8 de junho de 2010
quarta-feira, 2 de junho de 2010
Eu tentava gritar, mas minha voz não saia. Eu tentava me mexer, mas meus membros permaneciam imóveis. Eu tentava cuspir o gosto acre de terra e sangue, mas minha cabeça não se virava para lado algum. Eu tentava respirar fundo, mas uma chapa fria de metal pressionava meu peito e meu abdômen. Eu tentava me lembrar do que havia acontecido, mas as imagens se embaralhavam em minha mente: trânsito, curva, choque, escuridão. Eu tentava dormir e deixar o sono eterno me tirar dessa angústia, mas meu cérebro não me permitia esse descanso.
Tudo o que ouvia eram vozes distantes, indistintas, gritos, sirenes, o som cortante de uma serra contra o metal e o resfôlego de minha própria respiração. Tudo o que via era a escuridão. Tudo o que sentia era uma dor lancinante percorrendo meu corpo e o frio do metal sobre meu tronco em contraste com o sangue ardente que escorria de minha perna esquerda e de minha testa. Tudo o que pensava era que estava enterrada viva. Será que os bombeiros sabem que estou presa aqui embaixo? Será que eu já morri? Será que ficarei tetraplégica? Será que minha mãe já sabe o que aconteceu? Será que vou chegar a Parati para a Flip? Será que se eu desmaiar não acordo mais?
As vozes ficaram mais próximas, ouvi alguém gritar que havia uma pessoa sob os escombros. Será que eles estavam falando de mim? Ou teria mais alguém presa como eu? Aaaaaaiiiii! Não, não foi nada, apenas o barulho ensurdecedor da serra cortando uma chapa próxima a meu ouvido. Acho que eles sabem que estou aqui, então! Será que eu consigo gritar? Minha garganta está seca, está difícil respirar, o ar quente que sai de minhas narinas retorna ao bater contra o metal que parece estar a menos de um palmo de meu rosto. Está mais claro agora, vejo uma luz forte entrando por um buraco. Ou será o túnel que as pessoas que passam por experiências de quase-morte dizem enxergar? Minha perna dói tanto que já nem dói mais. Minha cabeça lateja. Acho que vou desmaiar.